Moral Thinking Fast And Slow

Moral Thinking  Fast and Slow PDF
Author: Hanno Sauer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131546747X
Size: 46.97 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 108
View: 1490

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Book Description: In recent research, dual-process theories of cognition have been the primary model for explaining moral judgment and reasoning. These theories understand moral thinking in terms of two separate domains: one deliberate and analytic, the other quick and instinctive. This book presents a new theory of the philosophy and cognitive science of moral judgment. Hanno Sauer develops and defends an account of "triple-process" moral psychology, arguing that moral thinking and reasoning are only insufficiently understood when described in terms of a quick but intuitive and a slow but rational type of cognition. This approach severely underestimates the importance and impact of dispositions to initiate and engage in critical thinking – the cognitive resource in charge of counteracting my-side bias, closed-mindedness, dogmatism, and breakdowns of self-control. Moral cognition is based, not on emotion and reason, but on an integrated network of intuitive, algorithmic and reflective thinking. Moral Thinking, Fast and Slow will be of great interest to philosophers and students of ethics, philosophy of psychology and cognitive science.

Regard For Reason In The Moral Mind

Regard for Reason in the Moral Mind PDF
Author: Joshua May
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198811578
Size: 68.32 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 288
View: 4466

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Book Description: The burgeoning science of ethics has fostered pessimism about moral thought and action: we're told that they are driven by arbitrary factors and unreasoned feelings. Joshua May argues compellingly that this pessimism is not justified: moral judgment and motivation are fundamentally rational enterprises not beholden to the passions.

Adapting Human Thinking And Moral Reasoning In Contemporary Society

Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society PDF
Author: Yama, Hiroshi
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1799818136
Size: 75.39 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 330
View: 6770

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Book Description: Studies on human thinking have focused on how humans solve a problem and have discussed how human thinking can be rational. A juxtaposition between psychology and sociology allows for a unique perspective of the influence on human thought and morality on society. Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society is an in-depth critical resource that provides comprehensive research on thinking and morality and its influence on societal norms as well as how people adapt themselves to the novel circumstances and phenomena that characterize the contemporary world, including low birthrate, the reduction of violence, and globalization. Furthermore, cultural differences are considered with research targeted towards problems specific to a culture. Featuring a wide range of topics such as logic education, cognition, and knowledge management systems, this book is ideal for academicians, sociologists, researchers, social scientists, psychologists, and students.

Thinking Fast And Slow

Thinking  Fast and Slow PDF
Author: Daniel Kahneman
Publisher: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0141918926
Size: 72.56 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 512
View: 5575

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Book Description: The phenomenal international bestseller - 2 million copies sold - that will change the way you make decisions 'A lifetime's worth of wisdom' Steven D. Levitt, co-author of Freakonomics 'There have been many good books on human rationality and irrationality, but only one masterpiece. That masterpiece is Thinking, Fast and Slow' Financial Times Why is there more chance we'll believe something if it's in a bold type face? Why are judges more likely to deny parole before lunch? Why do we assume a good-looking person will be more competent? The answer lies in the two ways we make choices: fast, intuitive thinking, and slow, rational thinking. This book reveals how our minds are tripped up by error and prejudice (even when we think we are being logical), and gives you practical techniques for slower, smarter thinking. It will enable to you make better decisions at work, at home, and in everything you do.

The Oxford Handbook Of Post Keynesian Economics Volume 2

The Oxford Handbook of Post Keynesian Economics  Volume 2 PDF
Author: G. C. Harcourt
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019935930X
Size: 68.23 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 528
View: 2902

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Book Description: This two volume Handbook contains chapters on the main areas to which Post-Keynesians have made sustained and important contributions. These include theories of accumulation, distribution, pricing, money and finance, international trade and capital flows, the environment, methodological issues, criticism of mainstream economics and Post-Keynesian policies. The Introduction outlines what is in the two volumes, in the process placing Post-Keynesian procedures and contributions in appropriate contexts.

The Point Of View Of The Universe

The Point of View of the Universe PDF
Author: Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191022438
Size: 24.85 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 320
View: 6153

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Book Description: What does the idea of taking 'the point of view of the universe' tell us about ethics? The great nineteenth-century utilitarian Henry Sidgwick used this metaphor to present what he took to be a self-evident moral truth: the good of one individual is of no more importance than the good of any other. Ethical judgments, he held, are objective truths that we can know by reason. The ethical axioms he took to be self-evident provide a foundation for utilitarianism. He supplements this foundation with an argument that nothing except states of consciousness have ultimate value, which led him to hold that pleasure is the only thing that is intrinsically good. Are these claims defensible? Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer test them against a variety of views held by contemporary writers in ethics, and conclude that they are. This book is therefore a defence of objectivism in ethics, and of hedonistic utilitarianism. The authors also explore, and in most cases support, Sidgwick's views on many other key questions in ethics: how to justify an ethical theory, the significance of an evolutionary explanation of our moral judgments, the choice between preference-utilitarianism and hedonistic utilitarianism, the conflict between self-interest and universal benevolence, whether something that it would be wrong to do openly can be right if kept secret, how demanding utilitarianism is, whether we should discount the future, or favor those who are worse off, the moral status of animals, and what is an optimum population.

Neurobiology And The Development Of Human Morality Evolution Culture And Wisdom Norton Series On Interpersonal Neurobiology

Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality  Evolution  Culture  and Wisdom  Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology  PDF
Author: Darcia Narvaez
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393709671
Size: 36.31 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 456
View: 6388

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Book Description: Winner of the Inaugural Expanded Reason Award: A wide-ranging exploration of the role of childhood experiences in adult morality. Moral development has traditionally been considered a matter of reasoning—of learning and acting in accordance with abstract rules. On this model, largely taken for granted in modern societies, acts of selfishness, aggression, and ecological mindlessness are failures of will, moral problems that can be solved by acting in accordance with a higher rationality. But both ancient philosophy and recent scientific scholarship emphasize implicit systems, such as action schemas and perceptual filters that guide behavior and shape human development. In this integrative book, Darcia Narvaez argues that morality goes “all the way down” into our neurobiological and emotional development, and that a person’s moral architecture is largely established early on in life. Moral rationality and virtue emerge “bottom up” from lived experience, so it matters what that experience is. Bringing together deep anthropological history, ethical philosophy, and contemporary neurobiological science, she demonstrates where modern industrialized societies have fallen away from the cultural practices that made us human in the first place. Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality advances the field of developmental moral psychology in three key ways. First, it provides an evolutionary framework for early childhood experience grounded in developmental systems theory, encompassing not only genes but a wide array of environmental and epigenetic factors. Second, it proposes a neurobiological basis for the development of moral sensibilities and cognition, describing ethical functioning at multiple levels of complexity and context before turning to a theory of the emergence of wisdom. Finally, it embraces the sociocultural orientations of our ancestors and cousins in small-band hunter-gatherer societies—the norm for 99% of human history—for a re-envisioning of moral life, from the way we value and organize child raising to how we might frame a response to human-made global ecological collapse. Integrating the latest scholarship in clinical sciences and positive psychology, Narvaez proposes a developmentally informed ecological and ethical sensibility as a way to self-author and revise the ways we think about parenting and sociality. The techniques she describes point towards an alternative vision of moral development and flourishing, one that synthesizes traditional models of executive, top-down wisdom with “primal” wisdom built by multiple systems of biological and cultural influence from the ground up.

New Approaches In Reasoning Research

New Approaches in Reasoning Research PDF
Author: Wim De Neys
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134751680
Size: 11.26 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 128
View: 3770

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Book Description: Reasoning research has long been associated with paper and pencil tasks in which peoples’ reasoning skills are judged against established normative conventions. However, there has been a recent revolution in the range of techniques, empirical methods and paradigms used to examine reasoning behaviour. New Approaches in Reasoning Research brings to the fore these new pioneering research methods and empirical findings. Each chapter is written by a world-leading expert in the field and covers a variety of broad empirical techniques and new approaches to reasoning research. Maintaining a high level of integrity and rigor throughout, Editors De Neys and Osman have allowed the experts included here the space to think big about the general issues concerning their work, to point out potential implications and speculate on further developments. Such freedom can only help to stimulate discussion and spark creative thinking. The use of these new methods and paradigms are already generating a new understanding of how we reason, as such this book should appeal to researchers and students of Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology, and Neuroscience along with Cognitive Scientists, and anyone interested in the latest developments in reasoning, rationality, bias, and thinking.

                                             PDF
Author: Robert B. Cialdini
Publisher: العبيكان للنشر
ISBN: 9960547469
Size: 36.91 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : ar
Pages : 348
View: 1799

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Book Description: التأثير, الكتاب الكلاسيكي حول عملية الإقناع, يشرح مبادئ علم النفس التي تقف وراء قول الناس «نعم» لأي طلب كان, كما يشرح كيفية تطبيق فهم هذه المبادئ. الدكتور روبرت سيالديني مدرّس خبير في حقلي التأثير والإقناع المتناميين بسرعة. إن هذا الكتاب الذي ينظر إليه في الأوساط العلمية نظرة مرموقة جداً؛ فهو حصيلة خمس وثلاثين سنة من الأبحاث الدقيقة المعتمدة على الأدلة القوية، إضافة إلى برنامج استمر ثلاث سنوات من الدراسة الميدانية لما يدفع الناس إلى تغيير سلوكهم. سوف نتعلم المبادئ الستة الأساسية, وكيف نستعملها كي نصبح مهرة في فن الإقناع- وكيف ندافع عن أنفسنا ضد من يحاول أن يستغلنا بإقناعنا بما يريد. هذا الكتاب مثالي لجميع الناس العاملين في جميع نواحي الحياة. سوف تغيّر مبادئ التأثيرشخصيتك تغييراً إيجابياً قوياً وتقودك نحو النجاح. العبيكان للنشر

Breakthroughs In Decision Science And Risk Analysis

Breakthroughs in Decision Science and Risk Analysis PDF
Author: Louis Anthony Cox, Jr.
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118938895
Size: 63.54 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 328
View: 3908

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Book Description: Discover recent powerful advances in the theory, methods, and applications of decision and risk analysis Focusing on modern advances and innovations in the field of decision analysis (DA), Breakthroughs in Decision Science and Risk Analysis presents theories and methods for making, improving, and learning from significant practical decisions. The book explains these new methods and important applications in an accessible and stimulating style for readers from multiple backgrounds, including psychology, economics, statistics, engineering, risk analysis, operations research, and management science. Highlighting topics not conventionally found in DA textbooks, the book illustrates genuine advances in practical decision science, including developments and trends that depart from, or break with, the standard axiomatic DA paradigm in fundamental and useful ways. The book features methods for coping with realistic decision-making challenges such as online adaptive learning algorithms, innovations in robust decision-making, and the use of a variety of models to explain available data and recommend actions. In addition, the book illustrates how these techniques can be applied to dramatically improve risk management decisions. Breakthroughs in Decision Science and Risk Analysis also includes: An emphasis on new approaches rather than only classical and traditional ideas Discussions of how decision and risk analysis can be applied to improve high-stakes policy and management decisions Coverage of the potential value and realism of decision science within applications in financial, health, safety, environmental, business, engineering, and security risk management Innovative methods for deciding what actions to take when decision problems are not completely known or described or when useful probabilities cannot be specified Recent breakthroughs in the psychology and brain science of risky decisions, mathematical foundations and techniques, and integration with learning and pattern recognition methods from computational intelligence Breakthroughs in Decision Science and Risk Analysis is an ideal reference for researchers, consultants, and practitioners in the fields of decision science, operations research, business, management science, engineering, statistics, and mathematics. The book is also an appropriate guide for managers, analysts, and decision and policy makers in the areas of finance, health and safety, environment, business, engineering, and security risk management.